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Why Grinding Process Is Crucial In Precision Machining?

by | Jan 16, 2024

Ever wonder how intricate parts in your car engine or delicate surgical instruments achieve such precision? The answer lies in a process often overlooked but critical: Grinding.

The absence of precision grinding in Computer Numerical Control or CNC machining can result in components with inconsistent dimensions, rough surface finishes, and compromised quality. Precision grinding operation serves as the linchpin in achieving tight tolerances, impeccable surface finishes, and consistent part conformity. In this article, we will understand the crucial role surface grinding plays in CNC machining.

Precision Grinding

Precision grinding is a meticulous machining process that employs precise control tools to shave off abrasive particles from a workpiece delicately. It plays a crucial role in the manufacturing industry by addressing the demand for tight tolerances and impeccable finishes. 

This process is renowned for its exceptional accuracy, yielding parts with incredibly narrow tolerances and a flawless surface finish. It is an indispensable solution for industries where precision and accuracy leave no room for compromise. Suitable for various materials like metal parts, plastics, and ceramics, the grinding machine ensures the production of components with exacting specifications.

Precision Grinding Advantages

Precision grinding is a transformative manufacturing process offering numerous advantages for both manufacturers and end-users. Here’s a closer look at the key benefits:

1. Tight Tolerances And Accuracy

Precision grinding excels in achieving unparalleled accuracy, ensuring that parts achieve tight tolerances. These are particularly crucial in industries where even minor variations can lead to significant implications. The method guarantees the recycling of intricate parts with remarkable quality control.

2. Flawless Surface Finish

The hallmark of a grinding machine lies in its ability to deliver a smooth, flawless surface finish on workpieces. This aspect is pivotal, not just for functional requirements but also for enhancing the aesthetic appeal of the final product. This surface grinding helps with material removal and eliminates irregularities, resulting in a polished and professional appearance.

3. Enhanced Durability

Parts subjected to surface grinding often exhibit increased strength and durability. The grinding process systematically removes imperfections and defects that might compromise the structural integrity of the material. The outcome is robust components capable of withstanding diverse operational challenges.

4. Intricate Shapes

Precision grinding proves to be highly efficient in fabricating intricate geometries that are difficult to attain using alternative machining methods. Its capacity to generate complex shapes with exceptional precision renders it indispensable in sectors such as aerospace and medical instruments, where the demand for distinctive designs are frequent.

5. Improved Efficiency

Precision grinding contributes to the overall efficiency of the manufacturing process. By reducing the need for two additional machining processes, it streamlines production workflows. This efficiency boost translates to not only time and resource savings but also a more seamless and cost-effective manufacturing journey.

Advantages of grinding in precision machining

Types of Precision Grinding

Precision surface grinding encompasses various techniques tailored to achieve specific surface finishes and dimensions for diverse components. The selection of the appropriate precision grinding operation depends on factors such as size, shape, finishing requirements, and desired production rates. Here are some common types:

Surface Grinding

  • Surface grinding is ideal for producing smooth finishes on a flat surface(s), enhancing appearance or functionality.
  • Surface grinders help to make ends perpendicular, achieve parallelism, or ensure squareness in cubic parts.
  • Surface grinding applications include micron-level tolerances and surface finishes as low as 0.2 microns, which are applicable to materials held by magnetic chuck(s) like cast iron and steel.

Cylindrical Grinding

  • Applies deep grinding to cylindrical surfaces and shoulders of workpieces, providing smooth surface finishes for round objects.
  • Types of Cylindrical grinding:
    • Internal Grinding (ID): Helps to remove material in excess on the internal diameter.
    • External Cylindrical Grinding (OD): Shapes the external material surface of the workpiece. Both the machine tool and the workpiece rotate in the same direction.
    • Precision: Standard tolerances for diameter and roundness at 1.3 microns and 0.25 microns, respectively.

Centerless Grinding

  • Centerless Grinding removes material to achieve a specific finish on the outside diameter of small, cylindrical workpieces without holding them between centers or chucks.
  • Uses an abrasive grinding wheel speed and a regulating grinding wheel, with the workpiece supported on the outer diameter.
  • There are no fixtures or motors; the workpiece rotates (s) through the grinder machine via a “magical angle” in the centerless grinding.

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Jig Grinding

  • Utilizes milling cutters to create complex shapes with high grinding speed & accuracy.
  • Its features include a regulating wheel retained in a spindle, capable of making slots, holes, and inside geometries.
  • Produces quality control surface finishes compared to traditional milling techniques.

Creep Feed Grinding

  • It involves using the specialized grinding wheel at a prolonged rate for intricate forms or slots in challenging materials.
  • Works on difficult-to-grind materials, allows easy design changes, and ensures excess material removal.

Single and Double-Disc Grinding

  • Uses large grinding wheel(s) to create flat, parallel workpieces for mass production.
  • Varieties:
    • Single-Disc: One wheel fastened to a vertical spindle.
    • Double-Disc: Two independent grinding wheel(s); parts pass between them.

Center-Type Grinding

  • A cylindrical grinder is used for center-type grinding on cylindrical surfaces.
  • The component involves a grinding wheel, chuck, two centers holding the workpiece, and features for driving the workpiece.
  • Enables smooth surface finishes; different shapes of abrasive wheels can be used.

Thread Grinding

  • Utilizes single-point formed wheels or contact to work on lead screws, worms, and ball screws.
  • Ideal for precision machining of threaded components.
  • Ensures accurate thread profiles with high precision.

Super abrasive Grinding

  • Employs grinding machines with hard materials like borazon, diamond, and CBN for closer tolerance machining.
  • Reduces tool wear, achieves superior quality machining, and results in overall cost-effectiveness.

Applications of Precision Grinding in Manufacturing Process

  1. Micro-finishing of Flat and Cylindrical Surfaces: Ensures smooth and flawless finishes on critical surfaces for optimal functionality.
  2. Grinding Machining of Outer Circles, Holes, and Hole Systems: Achieves precise dimensions and tolerances in components with intricate geometric features.
  3. Grinding of Bearing Surfaces: Crucial for achieving the required surface grinding and dimensional accuracy in bearings for the industrial, aerospace, and automotive industries.
  4. Precise Machining of Aerospace Fasteners, Tubes, Rods, Wires, Tools with Blades: Essential for meeting stringent quality standards in the aerospace industry.
  5. Production of Medical Devices: Employed in manufacturing critical components for medical instruments and devices with a focus on precision and reliability.
  6. Tools with Blades: Widely used for producing cutting tools with high precision, sharpness, and consistent quality control.

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Achieve Precision Excellence with Violin Technologies

At Violin Technologies, we go beyond precision grinding. We are dedicated to delivering quality-driven results for the manufacturing industry. Our extensive experience in CNC machining, coupled with robust quality control systems, ensures that your expectations are not just met but exceeded.

Ready to elevate your project with reliable precision component manufacturers? Contact us today! Your journey to precision excellence begins with us.

Almaas Saleem |author

Almaas Saleem

About the Author

Almaas Saleem is a skilled software engineer from Kerala, India who currently resides in East Africa. She is passionate about technology and constantly seeks to learn more about it through reading and hands-on experience. Almaas excels in web development, design, automated testing software, ethical hacking, cybersecurity, and digital marketing. She also works as a technical writer for new businesses, managing various entities. Almaas is distinguished by her steadfastness and commitment to her work, which consistently ion.